- Sunlight is the primary energy source in the world and sunlight may be converted directly into electricity using solar panel systems. Electricity is now indispensable in your life. It powers the machines that a majority of us use daily.
So, what are solar panels? Let's say you could make your personal?
In this article, we'll teach you a simple way of building your own functional solar panel.
A solar power is usually manufactured from six (6) components namely the PV (photovoltaic) cell or solar panel which generates the electricity, the glass which takes care of and protects the solar cells, the frame which gives rigidity, the backsheet where the solar panels are laid, the junction box where the wirings are enclosed and connected, along with the encapsulant which is adhesives.
Because most people doesn't have usage of equipment in manufacturing solar power systems, you should note and understand those six components to ensure anyone to manage to plan materials necessary to build a do-it-yourself or home-made screen.
The types of materials needed regarding how to produce a solar power has to be available to buy locally or web must not exceed the price of a new screen or does not take too much time to construct.
1.) PV Cell
The first thing to consider when building your personal cell is the solar cell.
Photovoltaic (PV) cell or solar panel converts visible light into electricity. One (1) solar panel however is just not enough to create a usable volume of electricity just like the microbot in Baymax (Hero 6) which only becomes useful when combined as being a group. This basic unit generates a DC (household power) voltage of 0.5 to 1 volt and even though this really is reasonable, the voltage is still not big enough for some applications. To generate a useful DC voltage, the solar cells are connected in series then encapsulated in modules making the screen. If one cell generates 0.5 volt and it is linked to another cell in series, these two cells should then be able to produce 1 volt plus they are able to be termed as a module. A normal module usually is made up of 28 to 36 cells in series. A 28-cell module should be able to produce roughly 14 volts (28 x 0.5 = 14VDC) that's enough to charge a 12V battery or power 12V devices.
Connecting two or more solar cells require that you've a basic idea of series and parallel connection which has similarities to connecting batteries to make up battery power storage system.
There's 2 most popular solar panels that are being sold on the market; a monocrystalline cell plus a polycrystalline cell. Both of these can have exactly the same size, 156mm x 156mm, nevertheless the main difference can be efficiency. You should purchase additional cells to provide as backup in case you fail on a number of the cells i.e. bad solder, broken cell, scratched, etc.
Monocrystalline solar panels are often black and octagonal in shape. This type of solar panel is made from the highest and purest grade silicon which makes them expensive. However they are the most efficient of all types of solar cells and are almost always the choice of solar contractors when space is a crucial factor to look into in achieving the power they wish to attain according to their solar system design.
Polycrystalline Electricity cells are seen as their bluish color and rectangular. These cells are manufactured inside a much easier process which lowers the purity from the silicon content plus lowers the efficiency with the end product.
Generally, monocrystalline cells tend to be more efficient than polycrystalline cells however does not mean that monocrystalline cells perform and outputs more power than polycrystalline cells. Solar cell efficiency has something connected to the size of cells every cell or cells provide an efficiency rating based on standard tests after they were manufactured. This rating is normally in percentage and also the common values cover anything from 15% to 20%.
The glass protects the Solar cells while allowing optimal sunlight to give. Usually manufactured from anti-reflective materials. Tempered glass is the choice of material nowadays even for unknown and new manufacturers although there remain people who utilize flat plate glass on their own solar power systems. Tempered glass are manufactured by chemical or thermal means and it is often times stronger than plate glass rendering it higher priced to create though the price of manufacturing them today is reasonable and cost-effective. Flat plate glass creates sharp and long shards when broken in contrast to tempered glass which shatters safely in small pieces upon impact, that's the reason they also think of it as safety glass. It should be noted here that many amorphous solar power panels uses flat plate glass with the way the panel is made.
Tempered glass is exactly what manufacturers use in mass producing their solar panels. Within our DIY project, we advise to make use of Plexiglas also known as acrylic glass that's safer compared to regular normal glass from your local hardware store. It's kind of expensive than regular glass but is weather resistant and break easily. The Plexiglas may also be screwed or glued easily for the frame.
A frame is normally made of anodized aluminum which offers structure and rigidity for the solar module. These aluminum frames are also designed to be suitable for most solar mounting systems and grounding equipment for straightforward and safe installation on a roof or on the ground.
The frame in the factory-built solar power is truly the aluminum part where all four sides of the screen sheet are inserted. Consider it a skeletal rectangular frame. The solar power sheet by the way is made up of one other 4 components and so are layered and laminated from the following order from top to bottom; the tempered glass, top encapsulant, the solar panels, bottom encapsulant, then this backsheet. In our DIY cell, i will be utilizing a wooden frame and also the end-result will be something analogous to some picture frame where the picture is the solar panels glued to some non-conductive board, the glass for that Plexiglas top cover, and the wooden part since the frame and backsheet.
The backsheet will be the layer of plastic film for the back top of the module. This is the only layer protecting the module from unsafe DC voltage. The main function of the backsheet is to insulate and protect the handler from shock and offer the safest, efficient, and dependable electrical conductivity possible.
The backsheet is a wooden plywood where the frame is going to be screwed on top and so on the sides. It ought to be noted here that the perforated hardboard (Pegboard) will be accustomed to place and align the PV Cells and this Pegboard will lay on the surface of the wooden backsheet and fitted in the wooden frame.
5.) Junction Box
The junction box is where the terminal wires and bypass diodes are situated and concealed. The terminal wires are just the bad and the good wires using the series connections of the PV Cells and could be associated with another screen, electric power charge controller, an assortment system, or to an inverter, based on the system design. The bypass diode is often a protective mechanism that prevent power from okay the solar panel when it is not producing electricity as in the case if it's evening.
You will find junction boxes created for factory-built solar panel systems which might be available nowadays to get online especially from China. If you're not short on time, you can order on the web and wait for delivery or maybe you can just buy a regular electrical junction box from your local home improvement store. The intention of the junction box is usually to protect the terminals (positive and negative terminals) from water, dust, along with other elements. Re-decorating where the two wires (red for positive and black for negative) will likely be via. The opposite end present in wires can even be paid by using a PV accessory called MC4 that may be also purchased online with the PV junction box.
Encapsulant sheets prevent water and dirt from infiltrating the solar modules and serve as shock-absorbers that protect the Electricity cells. They've this adhesive bonding chance to the glass, the Solar cells, as well as the backsheet such as a glue but stronger. Encapsulants are generally made of Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate or EVA and therefore are applied using lamination machines and procedures. Cell manufacturers utilize a vacuum plus a large oven to effectively seal and cure the EVA sheet on the solar power panels. Most of us will not have the capability to do that but a majority of continue to have tried and failed although some had varying numbers of success.
Encapsulants are thin plastic sheets that are usually laminated at the top and bottom elements of the solar cell sheet. The bottom encapsulant is the layer on top of the backsheet in which the cells are in reality placed and supported. In our project, we are going to instead use a latex acrylic paint. This paint won't be used on the electricity cells because when attempted, will not likely bring about the same distribution or using the liquid to the top of the cells which may degrade performance. The paint will be used on the wooden frame, wooden backsheet, and the Pegboard. This Latex Acrylic paint are able to protect the wooden parts from Ultra violet rays and can better resist blistering and cracking overtime. This paint, although water-soluble, can dry quickly and becomes water-resistant.